Computed tomography (CT) is an imaging procedure that uses special x-ray equipment to create detailed pictures, or scans, of areas inside the body. It is also called computerized tomography and computerized axial tomography (CAT).
The term ‘thoracic outlet syndrome’ describes compression of the neurovascular structures as they exit through the thoracic outlet (cervicothoracobrachial region). The thoracic outlet is marked by the anterior scalene muscle anteriorly, the middle scalene posteriorly, and the first rib inferiorly.
Spasticity is a motor disorder marked by a velocity-dependent increase in muscle tone or tonic stretch reflexes associated with hypertonia.
Spasticity can present variably in a clinical setting, Spasticity can lead to many complications eg interference with daily function, hygiene, comfort, and nursing care as well as contractures (increasing the risk of pressure ulcers and subsequent infections). Also, spasticity poses an increased risk of subluxation and/or dislocation as well as heterotopic ossification.
Spasticity can prove to be beneficial for some patients, allowing them to ambulate or simply stand/bear weight, decreasing their risk of developing osteoporosis and helping improve circulation and overall mental health.
Parkinson disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder that mostly presents in later life with generalized slowing of movements (bradykinesia) and at least one other symptom of resting tremor or rigidity. Other associated features are a loss of smell, sleep dysfunction, mood disorders, excess salivation, constipation, and excessive periodic limb movements in sleep (REM behavior disorder).
Lateral ligament injuries or inversion injuries are perhaps one of the most common sporting injuries seen by physiotherapists, especially in jumping sports (e.g. basketball, volleyball). They are usually a result of a forced plantar flexion/inversion movement, whereby the complex of ligaments on the lateral side of the ankle is torn by varying degrees.
A Popliteal cyst, better known as a Baker’s cyst, is a swelling filled with fluid that is located in the popliteal fossa region.Ganglia which are benign cystic tumors, originate from synovial tissue. It can occur mostly at the wrist, hand, foot, and knee which is known as popliteal cyst.
Endometriosis is a female reproductive disorder which affects the lining of the uterus, otherwise known as the endometrium. This estrogen-dependent disorder is defined by the presence of endometrial tissue outside of the uterus and becomes apparent after the start of menses.
For these tests, several names are used such as ballottement patellae, patellar tap, effusion test, fluid wave test, fluid displacement test, bulge, wipe and stroke test. At the time of writing, these tests were not documented in RCTs or other articles therefore the sources of the information in this article are academic textbooks.
Marfan syndrome is a genetic disorder of the connective tissue affecting most notably the skeletal system, cardiovascular system, eyes, and skin, among other body systems. Due to the widespread role of connective tissue throughout the body, individuals with Marfan syndrome may be at risk for many potentially severe or lethal co-moribidities as a result of the disease process.
Each digit of the hand has the ability to move freely throughout a full ROM into flexion and extension. The efficiency, fluidity, and forcefulness of such movement is made possible by several "pulleys" along each digit of the hand. These pulley systems are comprised of a series of retinacular-type structures that are either annular or cruciform in nature.There are five annular pulleys (A1-A5) and three cruciform pulleys (C1-C3).
Scoliosis is a three-dimensional deformative abnormality of the spine. Scoliosis is defined by the Cobb's angle of spine curvature in the coronal plane, and is often accompanied by vertebral rotation in the transverse plane and hypokyphosis in the sagittal plane. These abnormalities in the spine, costal-vertebral joints, and the rib cage produce a ‘convex’ and ‘concave’ hemithorax. The rotation component starts when the scoliosis becomes more pronounced. This is called a torsion-scoliosis, causing a gibbus.
Compartmental Syndrome is defined as a critical pressure increase within a confined compartmental space causing a decline in the perfusion pressure to the tissue within that compartment. The increase in interstitial pressure occurs within the Osseo-fascial compartment.This syndrome is a condition that can appear in many parts of the body: foot, leg, thigh, forearm, hand, buttocks etc.
The McKenzie method is a classification system and a classification-based treatment for patients with low back pain. A acronym for the McKenzie method is mechanical diagnosis and therapy (MDT). The McKenzie method was developed in 1981 by Robin McKenzie, a physical therapist from New Zealand. He passed away in 2013.
Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is the most common peripheral nerve entrapment worldwide. The general trend for this condition is progressive worsening, although spontaneous regression of symptoms is possible. Patients can be diagnosed quickly and respond well to treatment but the best means of integrating clinical, functional, and anatomical information for selecting treatment choices has not yet been identified.
Lumbar traction is the process of applying a stretching force to the lumbar vertebrae through body weight, weights, and/or pulleys to distract individual joints of the lumbar spine. The word traction is a derivative of the Latin word "tractico", which means "a process of drawing or pulling, and various forms of spinal traction have been described, since the time of Hippocrates, for the relief of pain.
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